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12 Blogs found.
  • Nov 04, 2019
    How laws are controlling pollution ? India’s 40% population is living in the seven states and UTs comprising the bulk of the Indo-Gangetic plain region of north India (Bihar, Chandigarh, Delhi, Haryana, Punjab, UP and west Bengal). The main cause behind this fact, is that these region’s population density is 3 times more than remaining states, which results into more pollution from vehicles, agricultural sources, residential areas. As per the WHO guidelines, if we reduce the Particulate pollution, we can increase the national average life expectancy by 4.3 yrs. Particulate matter There are various types of air pollution, in which Particulate matter (PM) air pollution recognized as the deadliest one globally. The AQLI demonstrates that life expectancy loss makes particulate pollution more devastating than communicable diseases like tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS, behavioral killers like cigarette smoking, and even war.[1] How much impact does this pollution causing on human health? If we look into with this outlook, [2] first-hand cigarette smoke leads to a reduction in global average life expectancy of about 1.6 years; alcohol and drugs reduce life expectancy by 11 months; unsafe water and sanitation take off 7 months; and HIV/AIDS, 4 months. Conflict and terrorism take off 22 days. So, the impact of particulate pollution on life expectancy is comparable to that of smoking, twice that of alcohol and drug use, three times that of unsafe water, five times that of HIV/AIDS, and 29 times that of conflict and terrorism. Is India being effected the most by the Particulate Matter, cutting life expectancy ? Read more https://shataxiamicuslex.blogspot.com/2019/11/particulate-matter-pm-air-pollution-how.html
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  • Sep 03, 2019
    The question which has set the news for a long time, “Whether Prostitution should be legalized in India or not” has come a long way but the internet tells us that Prostitution is Legal in India provided it isn’t contravening the laws.   Indian penal code, however, has stated certain activities related to prostitution and has given some pointers through which violation of law occurs. They are listed as: Soliciting services at public places. Performing or setting up Prostitution in hotels. Kerb crawling. Pandering. Running a brothel. Pimping. Child prostitution.   Suppression of Immoral Traffic in Women and Girl Act -1956, Prevention of Immoral Traffic Act-1956 and Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act-1956 are the mentioned laws related to prostitution in India. The most basic law amongst is “The Immoral Traffic (Suppression) Act passed in 1956”. This law is commonly known/referred to as SITA. SITA allows the prostitutes to ply their trade in private but doesn’t allow them to carry out their business in the open or public area. So here, a prostitute is someone who allows her body to be used for lewd purposes in return for monetary benefits.  The causes of prostitution can be deafening. Some of them are ill-treatment by parents, Bad company, Family prostitutes, Social customs, inability to arrange marriage, Lack of sex education, media, Prior incest and rape, Early marriage and desertion, Lack of recreational facilities, ignorance, and acceptance of prostitution, Economic causes include poverty and economic distress, Psychological causes which include desire for physical pleasure, greed and dejection, Human trafficking and soliciting.   Legalizing Prostitution in India will bring identification to the sex workers and hence can be asked for getting their names registered in the systems of law which will eventually put an end to soliciting and human trafficking. Not only this but sexually transmitted diseases will also be controlled as we'll be able to detect them within the Census. Another benefit of legalizing it would be that Male and females both will be able to cast lawful complaints against soliciting, harassment and violence. Legalization will give equal rights to sex workers. Rights which we think are very basic but are crucially important for them. Workers won't have to hide their identities. Pimping and violation will be stopped if it's once seen as a legit work and not entitlement bestowed upon by someone else.   On top of these conditions, Entertainment industries have made it look like a crime. It’s a patriarchal stigma with which the reality is ruined and hence portrays an imaginary version of the petrified life of a sex worker just for the sake of entertainment.  Though the Indian Penal Code has denied the establishment of the brothel, there are ample of brothels illegally operating in Indian cities like Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai, and other bigger and/or smaller cities. In 2016, The UNAIDS estimated that there were 657,829 prostitutes in the country.
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  • Sep 02, 2019
    It is defined in section 13 of Transfer of Property Act 1882, that an unborn is who haven’t born; doesn’t have an existence in the world physically or the one who is in a mother’s womb according to this Indian Law. But for a fact, an unborn is not counted as a living person but still hold the property rights and can be transferred to him/her. A legal term for a child Infant enventresa mere which means a child in the womb of a mother is entitled to take birth for many reasons. As per the Transfer of property act, the unborn attain definite rights and inherits the property through the ancestors but only under the restraint that he or she is born alive in this world. Although an unborn child isn’t considered as a living person, yet his/her rights can be bestowed by the guardian/caretaker.  There is a concoction that an unborn enventresa mere is a live person for the purpose of: (1) Acquisition of property by the child. (2) Or, being a life chosen to form part of the period in the rule against the perpetuation.   For property transfer of an unborn the benefits a person receives is set on two conditions which need to be fulfilled entirely: A) Prior life interest must be created in favor of a person in existence at the date of transfer. B) Absolute interest must be transferred in favor of an unborn person.   Rudiments for a valid transfer to an unborn are as follows: Trust Bond: A property can only be transferred to an unborn child if there are trusts. If there is an absence of trust, then the property rights are drafted in the name of a living person and later it is transferred to the minor, in such a case.   Prior Interest: Till an unborn does not exist in the world physically, the property rights are perceived by the trustee or the guardian in whose name the property is conferred.    Immediate transfer of the rights: As soon as the unborn child takes birth physically in the world, the property rights are immediately transferred under his/her name. Post which he or she will be and after this, the unborn, now a born, takes the sole ownership of the property designated.  This law brings benefits for the society and as well as an unborn individual!
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  • Aug 30, 2019
    Death is an unconditional part of human lives. In every culture and religion there are different way for the burials. If we are on earth we can perform any way provided as per our customs. My concern is regarding, if someone dies in space, how he/she should be buried in proper manner. The Swedish Biologist, Susanne Wiigh-Mäsak has provided us the new form of ecological burial, named as ‘Promession’. Promession- In this form firstly the corpse is to be placed in a coffin. Then it is frozen to minus 18 degree Celsius and lastly submerge into a liquid nitrogen. This makes the body very fragile and vibration of a particular amplitude disintegrate into an organic powder. After which those particles will be introduced in a vacuum chamber, where the water is evaporated away. Legality of promession - Promession is legal in Sweden and Scotland. Do read full article on my blog and give your valuable feedback
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  • Aug 29, 2019
    The Indian Contract Act, 1872 is important legislation in the field of commercial law in India. This law is completely responsible for regulating contractual relationships and obligations. A legal complexity arises very often when an agreement with respect to minor categories takes place. This is problematic because the Act does not permit such agreements uprightly. Section 11 of the Contract Act, 1872 directs the requirement of competency for entering into contracts to the minors. The very first such requirement is the majority age of an individual. In India, the Indian Majority Act, 1875 declares the age of the majority of all individuals to be 18 years. If a minor has a guardian or Court of Ward looking after him, his age of majority becomes 21 years. Hence, any contract with a party below the age of 18 years is invalid as directed by the Act.   Rules which relate to the agreements with Minor Parties are mentioned as: 1. A contract with a minor is void and, hence, no obligations can ever arise. 2.No court can allow a specific performance of a contract with minors because it is void altogether. 3. Parents or guardians of minors can name them in contracts only if it benefits them.  4. The minor party cannot ratify the contract upon attaining majority unless a law specifically allows this.
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  • Aug 05, 2019
    Performance measurement is the process of analyzing, collecting, and/or reporting information regarding the performance of an individual, group, organization, system or component.  When you measure something such as a quantity or a construction project it’s often a number game. But when measuring human performance, it takes a combination of hard numbers and soft intuitive insights. For calculating the performances, there too are certain parameters which decide whether an employee has performed or not. Below mentioned are some terms which measures: Graphic rating scales: A typical graphic scale uses sequential numbers, such as 1 to 5, or 1 to 10, to rate an employee’s relative performance in specific areas. Scales are often used to rate behavioral elements, such as "understands job tasks" or "participates in decision-making." Or they could note the frequency an employee performs a certain task or behavior, such as “always,” “frequently,” “occasionally,” or “never” coming to work on time. You can adapt scales to your business needs. Feedback: This well-named system takes into account the feedback, opinions and assessments of an employee’s performance from the circle of people in the company with whom they work. It can include co-workers, supervisors and others. As you evaluate the input from many sources, you can note positive and negative similarities and trends. You can also identify areas that may need additional measurements and support. Self-Evaluation: Asking an employee to evaluate her own performance can be very effective. Often, employees may be more critical of their performance than you might be. You can use a form that requires multiple-choice answers, essay-type answers, or a combination of the two. Comparing a self-evaluation to your own objective appraisal can be helpful in finding similarities and discrepancies along with a richer understanding of employee’s performance. It can generate conversations that can be beneficial to employee development.  
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  • Jul 31, 2019
      A paralegal is an individual who is employed by a lawyer, law office, corporation, governmental agency, or other entity and performs specifically delegated substantive legal work for which a lawyer is responsible. Paralegals perform tasks requiring knowledge of the law and legal procedures. A paralegal is not a lawyer but is typically employed by a law office or internal legal department of a company. Paralegals generally are not allowed to offer legal services independently in most jurisdictions. Paralegals operate under a form of independent legal ethics and, with few exceptions, must also conduct their work under the formal supervision of an attorney. To breakdown the common day-to-day tasks of a Paralegal, we’ve mentioned what exactly a paralegal do in a day: Client Interviews Interviewing is important part of being a paralegal. However, they are often present in order to observe the questioning and take notes so they are prepared to conduct subsequent interviews with clients and witnesses. After locating and interviewing a witness, the paralegal prepares a memo summarizing the testimony for the attorney. Drafting A large part of a paralegal’s day is spent drafting legal documents. This can include drafting correspondence and pleadings such as complaints, interrogatories, , subpoenas pretrial orders, deposition notices and legal briefs with various parties. Paralegal training in the art of written communication is essential. Law Office Administration Paralegals are also expected to handle administrative tasks such as filing papers, answering telephone calls, and maintaining and organizing reference files. Paralegals are in charge of maintaining the schedule of their attorney, and spend some time of each day calling clients, lawyers, witnesses, experts and court personnel to schedule interviews, meetings, hearings, depositions, and trials. Paralegals may also handle any needed travel arrangements.   
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  • Jun 27, 2019
    #MedicalMayhem The ongoing rage regarding the doctor’s attack has made the whole nation stand for justice. There are plentiful blogs/articles on this crucial issue giving several unfiltered information but none gives a clear perspective to the news. This is a legit unadulterated article about the Kolkata incident. We’ve done detailed research with best of our efforts to bring lucidity for you all. On 10th of June Mohammad Sayeed who was a diabetic suffered acute cardiac arrest and in the evening the patient developed arrhythmia (Increase in heart rate). Several injections were administered but the fellow doctors couldn’t save him. Mohammad Sayeed passed away at 5:30 PM. Mohammad’s family reacted unpleasantly and assaulted two female doctors and one male doctor who was working that hour. Later, when the family came to receive the body, the doctors pleaded an apology from the relatives for their behavior and denied giving the body that moment. This agitated the situation and made the relatives insurgent. Mohammad’s family rebelled against the doctors and bought 200 men to the hospital. They threw stones and coconut shells, in which two junior doctors were injured. A shell hit Paribahan Mukherjee with which his skull cracked sternly. Paribahan Mukherjee is a junior doctor at NRS Medical College, Kolkata and was on duty the same night. This initiated nix amongst the medical federation. The Principal and the Vice Principal of the college resigned on 13 June for their concerned reasons. Aftereffect of this incident catalyzed the entire nation and a PIL (Public Interest litigation) under article 32 (Violation of fundamental human rights) was registered by Alok Shrivastava in Supreme Court. The Medical community went on a strike on 17th June with the help of the Indian Medical Association (IMA). Over 300 doctors resigned their jobs. States like West Bengal, Telangana, Uttar Pradesh, Delhi and Maharashtra all together supported this movement. The federation has three demands from the government:  Through this incident and many such from the past has made the doctors demand the first and foremost exigent right of human survival; Security! Doctors ask the central government to provide 24/7 police protection for their safety.  As these cases are recurrent, doctors seek justice by demanding the government to make a law for them in which culprits who harass doctors would be punished for their crimes accordingly.  Doctors also want the government to implement an exclusive law whose bandwidth will be extended for the entire Nation. This incident circulated throughout and henceforth people started questioning the state government (West Bengal) after the Doctor’s protest. The chief minister of the state visited the victim and talked with the doctors who were protesting. According to CNN News, the CM spoke to the protesters with aggression, “Get back to your work or vacant the hostels and go home. Or you’ll face the rough consequences.” As a result, the SC declined the urgent hearing of PIL on 18th June. The Quint said, the Health Minister urged the CM to not involve prestige and rather take immediate actions. SC then agreed to hear the petition on 21 st June under a vacation bench by Deepak Gupta. The verdict is yet to be given but the doctors are still in great disappointment. Why wouldn’t they be? The people who save us need to be saved too!
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  • Jun 19, 2019
    Article composed on:    28th February, 2019 HEMANT  AGARWAL's   Analysis on:   PROFESSION TAX on HOUSING SOCIETIES:   SUBJECT only to State of Maharashtra, under the "Profession Tax Act" and statutorily applicable without any exceptions to "Cooperative Housing Societies", registered under the "Maharashtra Cooperative Societies Act.   WHO IS LIABLE: 01. EACH & EVERY Housing Society (CHS), registered under the "Maharashtra Cooperative Societies Act", are statutorily & mandatorily bound to pay "Profession Tax", for itself (CHS), and for its employees, under the provisions of “MAHARASHTRA STATE TAX ON PROFESSIONS, TRADES, CALLINGS AND EMPLOYMENTS ACTS, 1975” (in short: Profession Tax Act). For Complete Article, Kindly prefer to visit: https://chshelpforum.com/profession-tax AUTHOR:  Hemant Agarwal Email:  ha21@rediffmail.com    
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  • Jun 19, 2019
    Article composed on:    28th February, 2019 HEMANT  AGARWAL's   Analysis on:   PROFESSION TAX on HOUSING SOCIETIES:   SUBJECT only to State of Maharashtra, under the "Profession Tax Act" and statutorily applicable without any exceptions to "Cooperative Housing Societies", registered under the "Maharashtra Cooperative Societies Act.   WHO IS LIABLE: 01. EACH & EVERY Housing Society (CHS), registered under the "Maharashtra Cooperative Societies Act", are statutorily & mandatorily bound to pay "Profession Tax", for itself (CHS), and for its employees, under the provisions of “MAHARASHTRA STATE TAX ON PROFESSIONS, TRADES, CALLINGS AND EMPLOYMENTS ACTS, 1975” (in short: Profession Tax Act). For Complete Article, Kindly prefer to visit: https://chshelpforum.com/profession-tax AUTHOR:  Hemant Agarwal Email:  ha21@rediffmail.com    
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  • Jun 06, 2019
    Article 21 of the Constitution guarantees the right of personal liberty and thereby prohibits any inhuman, cruel or degrading treatments to any person whether he is a national or foreigner. Any violation of this right attracts the provisions of Article 14 of the Constitution which enshrines right to equality and equal protection of law. In addition to this, the question of cruelty to prisoners is also dealt with specifically by the Prison Act, 1894. If any excesses are committed on a prisoner, the prison administration is responsible for that. Any excesses committed on a prisoner by the police authorities not only attracts the attention of the legislature but also of the judiciary. The Indian judiciary, particularly the Supreme Court in the recent past has been very vigilant against encroachments upon the human rights of the prisoners. Right to Legal AidThe talk of human rights would become meaningless unless a person is provided with legal aid to enable him to have access to justice in case of violation of his human rights. This a formidable challenge in the country of India’s size and heterogeneity where more than half of the population lives in far-flung villages steeped in poverty, destitution and illiteracy. Legal aid is no longer a matter of charity or benevolence but is one of the constitutional rights and the legal machinery itself is expected to deal specifically with it. The basic philosophy of legal aid envisages that the machinery of administration of justice should be easily accessible and should not be out of the reach of those who have to resort to it for the enforcement of their legal rights. In fact legal aid offers a challenging opportunity to the society to redress grievances of the poor and thereby law foundation of Rule of Law.   In India, judiciary has played an important role in developing the concept of legal aid and expanding its scope so as to enable the people to have access to courts in case of any violation of their human rights. In the case of M.H. Wadanrao Hoskot v. State of Maharashtra, the Court held that the right to legal aid is one of the ingredients of fair procedure. If a prisoner sentenced to imprisonment, is virtually unable to exercise his constitutional and statutory right of appeal, for want of legal assistance, there is implicit in the court under article 142 read with article 21 and 39-A of the Constitution, power to assign council for such imprisoned individual for doing complete justice.Where the prisoner is disabled from engaging a lawyer, on reasonable grounds such as indigence or incommunicado situation, the court shall, if the circumstances of the case, the gravity of the sentence, and the ends of justice so required, assign competent counsel for the prisoners defense, provided the party doesn’t object to that lawyer. Right to Speedy TrialRight to speedy trial is a fundamental right of a prisoner implicit in article 21 of the Constitution. It ensures just, fair and reasonable procedure. The fact that a speedy trial is also in public interest or that it serves the social interest also, does not make it any the less right of accused. It is in the interest of all concerned that the guilt or innocence of the accused is determined as quickly as possible in the circumstances. In the case of Hussainara Khatoon v. State of Bihar , a shocking state of affairs in regard to the administration of justice came forward. An alarmingly large number of men and women, including children are behind prison bars for years awaiting trial in the court of law. The offences with which some of them were charged were trivial, which, even if proved would not warrant punishment for more than a few months, perhaps a year or two, and yet these unfortunate forgotten specimens of humanity were in jail, deprived of their freedom, for periods ranging from three to ten years without as much as their trial having commenced. The Hon’ble Supreme Court expressed its concerned and said that:What faith can these lost souls have in the judicial system which denies them a bare trial for so many years and keeps them behind the bars not because they are guilty; but because they are too poor to afford bail and the courts have no time to try them.Right against Solitary Confinement, Handcuffing & Bar Fetters and Protection from TortureSolitary Confinement in a general sense means the separate confinement of a prisoner, with only occasional access of any other person, and that too only at the discretion of the jail authorities. In strict sense it means the complete isolation of a prisoner from all human society. Torture is regarded by the police/investigating agency as normal practice to check information regarding crime, the accomplice, extract confession. Police officers who are supposed to be the protector of civil liberties of citizens themselves violate precious rights of citizens. But torture of a human being by another human is essentially an instrument to impose the will of the strong over the weak. Torture is a wound in the soul so painful that sometimes you can almost touch it, but it is also so intangible that there is no way to heel it. An arrested person or under-trial prisoner should not be subjected to handcuffing in the absence of justifying circumstances. When the accused are found to be educated persons, selflessly devoting their service to public cause, not having tendency to escape and tried and convicted for bailable offence, there is no reason for handcuffing them while taking them from prison to court. In the case of Prem Shanker Shukla v. Delhi Administration, the petitioner was an under-trial prisoner in Tihar jail. He was required to be taken from jail to magistrate court and back periodically in connection with certain cases pending against him. The trial court has directed the concerned officer that while escorting him to the court and back handcuffing should not be done unless it was so warranted. But handcuffing was forced on him by the escorts. He therefore sent a telegram to one of the judges of Supreme Court on the basis of which the present habeas corpus petition has been admitted by the court.To handcuff is to hoop harshly and to punish humiliatingly. The minimum freedom of movement, under which a detainee is entitled to under Art.19, cannot be cut down by the application of handcuffs. Handcuffs must be the last refuge as there are other ways for ensuring security. There must be material, sufficiently stringent, to satisfy a reasonable mind that there is clear and present danger of escape of the prisoner who is being transported by breaking out of police control. Even when in extreme circumstances, handcuffs have to be put on prisoner, the escorting authority must record contemporaneously the reasons for doing so. The judicial officer before whom the prisoner is produced has to interrogate the prisoner, as a rule, whether he has been subjected to handcuffs and other ‘iron’ treatments and if he has been, the official concerned shall be asked to explain the action forthwith.Right to meet friends and Consult LawyerThe horizon of human rights is expanding. Prisoner’s rights have been recognized not only to protect them from physical discomfort or torture in the prison but also to save them from mental torture. In the case of Sunil Batra(II) v. Delhi Administration , the Supreme Court recognized the right of the prisoners to be visited by their friends and relatives. The court favoured their visits but subject to search and discipline and other security criteria. The court observed:Visits to prisoners by family and friends are a solace in insulation, and only a dehumanized system can derive vicarious delight in depriving prison inmates of this humane amenity. In Francis Coralie Mullin v. The Administrator, Union Territory of Delhi and others, The Supreme Court ruled that the right to life and liberty includes the right to live with human dignity and therefore a detainee would be entitled to have interviews with family members, friends and lawyers without severe restrictions. Court stressed upon the need of permitting the prisoners to meet their friends and relatives. The court held that the prisoner or detainee could not move about freely by going outside the jail and could not socialize with persons outside jail.Right to Reasonable Wages in PrisonRemuneration, which is not less than the minimum wages, has to be paid to anyone who has been asked to provide labour or service by the state. The payment has to be equivalent to the service rendered, otherwise it would be ‘forced labour’ within the meaning of Article 23 of the Constitution. There is no difference between a prisoner serving a sentence inside the prison walls and a freeman in the society. Whenever during the imprisonment, the prisoners are made to work in the prison; they must be paid wages at the reasonable rate. The wages should not be below minimum wages. In the case of Mahammad Giasuddin v. State of A.P. , the court directed the state to take into account that the wages should be paid at a reasonable rate. It should not be below minimum wages, this factor should be taken into account while finalizing the rules for payment of wages to prisoners, as well as to give retrospective effect to wage policy.Right to expressionIn State of Maharashtra v. Prabhakar Panduranga , the court held that the right to personal liberty includes the right to write a book and get it published and when this right was exercised by a detenu its denial without the authority of law violated Article 21. In the case of R. Rajagopal alias R.R. Gopal and Another v. State of Tamil Nadu and Others, the petition raises a question concerning the freedom of press vis-a-vis the right to privacy of the citizens of this country. It also raises the question as to the parameters of the right of the press to criticize and comment on the acts and conduct of public officials. The court held that the petitioners have a right to publish, what they allege to be the life-story/autobiography of Auto Shankar insofar as it appears from the public records, even without his consent or authorisation. But if they go beyond that and publish his life story, they may be invading his right to privacy and will be liable for the consequences in accordance with law. Similarly, the State or its officials cannot prevent or restrain the said publication. ConclusionU.S. Supreme Court in Manna v. People of Illinois once said that life is not mearly animal existence. The souls behind the bars cannot be denied the same. It is guaranteed to every person by Article 21 of the Constitution and not even the State has the authority to violate that Right. A prisoner, be he a convict or under-trial or a detenu, does not cease to be a human being. They also have all the rights which a free man has but under some restrictions. Just being in prison doesn’t deprive them from their fundamental rights. Even when lodged in the jail, he continues to enjoy all his Fundamental Rights. On being convicted of crime and deprived of their liberty in accordance with the procedure established by law, prisoners still retain the residue of constitutional rights. The importance of affirmed rights of every human being need no emphasis and, therefore, to deter breaches thereof becomes a sacred duty of the Court, as the custodian and protector of the fundamental and the basic human rights of the citizens. Supreme Court has gone a long way fighting for their rights. However the fact remains that it is the police and the prison authorities who need to be trained and oriented so that they take prisoner’s rights seriously.
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  • Jun 03, 2019
    Parliament passes Personal Laws (Amendment) Bill 2019 The Parliament has passed the Personal Laws (Amendment Bill), 2018, which seeks to remove leprosy as a ground for divorce. The Parliament on February 13, 2019 passed the Personal Laws (Amendment Bill), 2018 that seeks to remove leprosy as a ground for divorce. The bill was passed after upper house of the Parliament Rajya Sabha approved it without discussion. The lower house of the Parliament, Lok Sabha had passed the bill on January 7, 2019. Leprosy is being removed as a ground for divorce as it is now a curable disease as against the earlier notion of it being incurable. Objective The Bill seeks to uphold the rights of people with leprosy as the disease is curable. It seeks to amend five personal laws- the Hindu Marriage Act 1955, Dissolution of Muslim Marriages Act 1939, Divorce Act (for Christians) 1869, Special Marriage Act 1954 and the Hindu Adoptions and Maintenance Act 1956- to remove leprosy as a ground for divorce. Key Highlights • Leprosy as a ground for divorce is a "discriminatory" provision. The first attempt towards eliminating the bias against people suffering from the disease was made in 2008 when the National Human Rights Commission had underlined the need to make amendments in certain personal laws and other legislations. • In 2010, the United Nations General Assembly adopted a Resolution on the ‘Elimination of discrimination against persons affected by leprosy and their family members’, which was signed and ratified by India. • Subsequently, the 20th Law Commission of India in its 256th Report titled “Eliminating Discrimination Against Persons Affected by Leprosy” had recommended repeal of laws and provisions that were discriminatory against leprosy-affected people. • In 2014, the Supreme Court had also asked the Centre and the state governments to take the necessary steps for rehabilitation and integration of leprosy-affected people into the mainstream including the steps to repeal the provisions where leprosy has been treated as a stigmatic disability. • Hence, taking in regard the recommendations, Government decided to omit such discriminatory provisions from the Personal Laws. Statement of Objects and Reasons of the Bill : The section states that earlier leprosy patients were isolated and segregated from society as the leprosy was not curable and the society was hostile to them. However, as a result of intensive healthcare and availability of modern medicine to cure the disease, the attitude of the society towards them began to change. The discriminatory provisions contained in various statutes against the persons affected with leprosy were made prior to the medical advancements rendering leprosy a curable disease. Presently, leprosy is completely curable and can be treated with multidrug therapy. However, old legislative provisions discriminating the persons affected by leprosy continue to be active in various laws. Significance The bill aims to end discrimination against people suffering from leprosy. When it will get Presidential assent and become an Act, it will go a long way in detaching the social stigma associated with the disease. What is leprosy? Leprosy is one of the oldest diseases in recorded history. Also known as Hansen's disease (HD), it is a chronic, progressive bacterial infection caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium leprae. It primarily affects the nerves of the extremities, the skin, the lining of the nose, the upper respiratory tract and the eyes. The disease produces skin ulcers, nerve damage, and muscle weakness. If it isn’t treated, it can cause severe disfigurement and significant disability. It is known to occur at all ages ranging from early infancy to very old age. It is common in many countries, especially those with a tropical or subtropical climate. 
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